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In this chapter, we consider the effects of low levels of O 2 and high levels of CO 2 on the longevity of detached plant tissues; the effects of slicing on tissue metabolism; the determination of gas diffusivities through plant tissues, e. The most important aspect of MAP for the longevity of these commodities is the decrease in O 2 concentration that leads to the induction of a metabolic depression. In the case of climacteric fruit, the metabolic depression is saturable with respect to O 2 concentration.

Also a combination of low temperature 1—2. Minimally fresh processed plant foods have fresh-like, living cells and active enzyme containing qualities. They are packaged and mildly processed and refrigerated. All crops are grown, harvested, and transported, under advanced hygienic and sanitary practices. The raw materials are washed, cut and spin dried, processed, and packaged in cool factories with extremely sanitized conditions.

About this book

A MPR fruits and vegetables food system comprises the various activities and actors in food value chains involved in transforming inputs into outcomes, which for a sustainable food system should include food and nutrition security, convenience to consumer, environmental quality, and human well-being. A new food system approach that brings together experts from different fields and representatives from different sectors to work together collaboratively is critical for designing an appropriate MPR fruit and vegetable food system, under, local, national, and international levels.

This means not to focus on one sector, but use inter- and transdisciplinary methods to consider together the interactions with other sectors such as health, food, environment, energy, and development. Minimally processed fruits and vegetables are complex and more active systems than whole fruits and vegetables. Endogenous enzymes in fruits and vegetables play a vital role in the development of desired color, texture, flavor, nutritive value, and bioactivity of edible vegetable parts. The natural control mechanisms over the enzymatic reactions are lost mainly during the various minimal processing.

Some endogenous enzymes and microbial enzymes may cause deteriorative changes in fruits and vegetables and especially in minimally processed fruits and vegetables at the postharvest stage. Discoloration, loss of texture, off-flavor formation, lipid oxidation, and loss of nutritional value are the important detrimental changes in the quality of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Such deleterious changes in the quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables can be diminished with several preserving technologies and techniques such as refrigeration, controlled atmosphere packaging and modified atmosphere packaging, high-pressure processing, and edible coating.

However, each technology has some advantages and disadvantages, with the latter predominating. In this regard, novel technologies such as pulsed electric field, ultrasonication, UV irradiation, and alternative thermal-processing technologies such as microwave, radio frequency, and ohmic heating are being investigated.

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The nutritional value, phytochemical quality, sensory quality, safety quality, and spoilage of minimally processed, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are related to physiological due to enzymatic and metabolic activity of the living plant tissue and microbial activities due to proliferation of microorganisms. Processing fresh fruits and vegetables removes the natural protection of the epidermis and destroys the internal compartmentalization that separates enzymes from substrates. Consequently, plant tissues suffer physical damages that make them much more perishable than when the original product is intact.

In addition, processing results in a stress response by the produce characterized by an increased respiration rate wound respiration and ethylene production, leading to faster metabolic rates; changes in metabolic rates and damage of the plant tissue lead to exposure to air, desiccation transpiration , and accumulation of enzymes with substrates, all leading to quality degradation. Proper processing and packaging minimize changes and quality loss with increased shelf-life.

New and old methods needed to provide safety and satisfactory shelf life for MPR foods. The hurdle concept must be carefully applied to MPR fruits and vegetables, and the issue is still subject to much research and governmental regulation. Selected hurdles must maintain safety and like-fresh quality and extend shelf life of whole, clean, safe foods.

Ready-to-eat products are a rapidly growing sector in the market due to increased consumer demand for fresh, healthy, convenient, and additive-free products. However, freshly prepared food items are highly perishable and prone to major spoilage mechanisms of enzymatic discoloration, moisture loss, and microbial growth. Increase in market for ready-to-eat foods requires new preservation strategies to prolong the shelf-life of minimally processed MP food.

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The challenge is to develop and apply treatments effective on MP produce without compromising sensory quality through the shelf-life. This chapter reviews the different preservation and packaging methods applicable to MP produce to maintain quality and safety and increase the shelf-life. The use of intelligent indicators, active packaging technologies, and new-generation packaging materials in conjunction with MAP, irradiation, chemical treatments, coating, and hurdle technology is discussed in this chapter.

In particular, fresh-cut products attract consumers because they are fresh, nutritious, reasonably priced, and less time-consuming. With the busy lifestyles, consumer tends to use less time for preparing meals. Consumers prefer eating fruits and vegetables, and they prefer ready-to-eat products than preparing it themselves.

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As a result, the maintenance of the quality of fresh-cut produce has become more challenging to the food industry today. Fresh-cut fruits have become popular because they meet the consumer demand for convenient ready-to-eat foods with fresh-like quality as well as for the health benefits associated with their consumption. Fresh-cut fruits are characterized by a shorter shelf life than their whole counterparts, because a large and usually damaged surface area from peeling and cutting results in a higher respiration, ethylene and transpiration rates and a greater possibility of enzymatic and microbial deterioration.

Food Nanotechnology: Applications

These changes are usually accompanied by cut surface browning, loss of firmness, typical aroma and vitamin as well as off-flavor development, surface desiccation, decay and a shorter shelf life of fresh-cut fruits. This chapter aims to review the published scientific information related to extend the shelf life while maintaining nutritional, sensory and microbial quality of commercially available some of important fresh-cut fruits for a time adequate to allow distribution and marketing.

Several commodit i es, although botanically fruits e. The consumer demand on minimally processed food products has been constantly growing due to its convenience, safety, and nutritional quality. Minimally processed herbs, spices, medicinal and aromatic plants are receiving attention of researchers because there had been several outbreaks due to improper preparation conditions.

Nonthermal processing technologies -chemical sanitizers, ozone, irradiation, electrolyzed oxidizing water, modified atmosphere packaging - are generally preferred in minimally processed food products to provide sufficient shelf life with high quality; however, they have disadvantages from a health perspective e. Even though thermal processing technologies have negative effect on the freshness, sensorial values, and nutritional quality, some studies indicated that there is a potential in usage of ultraviolet, far infrared, and microwave in minimally processed herbs, spices, medicinal and aromatic plants.

In this chapter, the common applications of nonthermal and thermal food processing technologies on herbs, spices, medicinal and aromatic plants are discussed. The general characteristics of treatments and their efficacy on microbial inactivation, product quality, and nutrition are covered. Given their short growth cycle 4—10 days , sprouts are usually grown in the dark, without a growing medium and without fertilizers and agrochemicals. Their edible portion is constituted by the entire sprout, including the rootlets.

From a biological point of view, the sprout represents the first stage of growth of a plant that starts from seed germination. They differ from sprouts because they require light and a growing medium and have a longer growth cycle 7—28 days ; the edible portion is constituted by stem and cotyledons and often by the emerging first true leaves. It is concluded that food irradiation processing is not a panacea for all problems in food processing but when properly used will serve the space station well. The application of high dose food irradiation in South Africa.

During the s to the end of the s the United States Army developed the basic methodology to produce shelf-stable irradiated meat, seafood and poultry products. These products are normally packed without gravy, sauce or brine, as liquid is not required to sterilize the product as in the canning process. This leads to the distinctive "dried cooked" taste normally associated with roasts opposed to the casserole taste usually associated with tinned meats. The Biogam group at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa is currently producing shelf-stable irradiated meats on a commercial basis.

The product is packaged in a high quality four layer laminate pouch and will therefore not rust or burst even under adverse weather conditions and can be guaranteed for more than two years as long as the integrity of the packaging is maintained. Safari operators in remote parts of Africa, mountaineers, yachtsmen, canoeists and geological survey teams currently use shelf-stable irradiated meat products produced in South Africa. Economics of food irradiation.

The number of products being radiation processed worldwide is constantly increasing and today includes such diverse items as medical disposables, fruits and vegetables, spices, meats, seafoods and waste products. This range of products to be processed has resulted in a wide range of irradiator designs and capital and operating cost requirements. This paper discusses the economics of low dose food irradiation applications and the effects of various parameters on unit processing costs.

It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operating costs and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the reader with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. Food irradiation and sterilization. Radiation sterilization of food radappertization requires exposing food in sealed containers to ionizing radiation at absorbed doses high enough kGy to kill all organisms of food spoilage and public health significance.

Radappertization is analogous to thermal canning is achieving shelf stability long term storage without refrigeration. Radappertozed foods have the characteristic of fresh foods prepared for eating. Radappertization can substitute in whole or in part for some chemical food additives such as ethylene oxide and nitrites which are either toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, or teratogenic. After 27 years of testing for "wholesomeness" safety for consumption of radappertized foods , no confirmed evidence has been obtained of any adverse effecys of radappertization on the "wholesomeness" characteristics of these foods.

Wholesomeness of irradiated food. Just with the emergence of the idea to treat food by ionizing radiation, the concerns were voiced whether it would be safe to consume such food. Now, we look back on more than hundred years of research into the 'wholesomeness', a terminology developed during those efforts.

Food processing technologies & applications - EFFoST

This review will cover the many questions which had been raised, explaining the most relevant ones in some detail; it will also give place to the concerns and elucidate their scientific relevance and background. There has never been any other method of food processing studied in such depth and in such detail as food irradiation. The conclusion based on science is: Consumption of any food treated at any high dose is safe, as long as the food remains palatable. This conclusion has been adopted by WHO, also by international and national bodies.

Finally, this finding has also been adopted by Codex Alimentarius in , the international standard for food. However, this conclusion has not been adopted and included at its full extent in most national regulations. As the literature about wholesomeness of irradiated food is abundant, this review will use only a few, most relevant references, which will guide the reader to further reading. Food irradiation and airline catering. Food poisoning from contaminated airline food can produce serious consequences for airline crew and passengers and can hazard flight.

While irradiation of certain foodstuffs has been practised in a number of countries for some years, application of the process has not been made to complete meals. This paper considers the advantages, technical considerations, costs and possible application to airline meals. In addition, the need to educate the public in the advantages of the process in the wake of incidents such as Chernobyl is discussed.

Food Applications and Regulation. This chapter deals with food applications of bacteriocins. Regulatory issues on the different possibilities for incorporating bacteriocins as bioprotectants are discussed. Specific applications of bacteriocins or bacteriocin-producing strains are described for main food categories, including milk and dairy products, raw meats, ready-to-eat meat and poultry products, fermented meats, fish and fish products or fermented fish.

Results obtained for application of bacteriocins in combination with other hurdles are also discussed for each specific case, with a special emphasis on novel food packaging and food -processing technologies, such as irradiation , pulsed electric field treatments or high hydrostatic pressure treatment. The utility of microwave irradiation to accelerate the onset of equilibrium and improve ELISA performance was examined using ELISAs for the detection of the plant toxin ricin and gliadin.

The use of microwave irradiation had no significant advantage over the application of heat using an oven incubator and performed worse with some foods.

Rheology of Fluid and Semisolid Foods: Principles and Applications (Food Engineering Series)

Whether microwave irradiation was advantageous compared to incubation in an oven was inconclusive. However, by abbreviating the incubation time of the ricin ELISA, it was possible to cut the assay time to less than 2 hours and still display LOD values Commercial implementation of food irradiation. In July , the first specifically designed multi-purpose irradiation facility for food irradiation was put into service by the Radiation Technology, Inc.

The operational experience gained, resulted in an enhanced design which was put into commercial service in Haw River, North Carolina, by another subsidiary, Process Technology N. These facilities have enabled the food industry to assess the commercial viability of food irradiation. Two years later in July , the FDA approved the first food additive regulation involving food irradiation in nineteen years, when they approved the Radiation Technology, Inc.